Business Process Library Q Business Process Management

Q-BPM:Sample Process Article

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Most likely users of Q-BPM site are more or less familiar with business flow diagram.

Business flow diagram is a diagram that shows "by whom," "by which route," "when," "to whom," "with whom," and "how" tasks, which comprise business, are executed. One of the objectives of Q-BPM is "to be a site in which businessmen all over the world can study BPM," and seeing business flow diagram created by people all over the world is really helpful.

The collection of sample process articles that contains business flow diagrams used in various areas and scenes is one of the contents of Q-BPM. Sample process contains not only business flow diagrams but also the background of business flow and information about data used in diagrams. Let's study BPM with everyone using Q-BPM through understanding this page, seeing various sample processes, discussing about them, and actually creating business process diagrams.


Creation and Update of Articles

It is the same as the way to create articles for Q-BPM. Please actively edit sample process articles after referring Q-BPM:Help and Q-BPM:Overview of Wiki Grammar.

Organization of Article

Process Owner

A process owner is a participant in charge of the process execution and members actually executing the process.

  • "Responsibility for improving methodologies (Methodology improvement responsibility)"
  • "Responsibility for accomplishing goals (Goal Accomplishment Responsibility)"

A process owner mainly has two responsibilities listed above. In BPM and internal control fields, a process owner is responsible for "business process optimization," including improvement of process model effectiveness improvement of efficiency, mitigating risks, and so forth.

It is recommended to write articles consisted of the following sections.

  • Introduction
    Briefly describe the business process. Writing objectives and settings of it should be helpful.
  • Overview
    This section describes by whom and at which timing the actions are initiated. Itemizing sentences would be good in terms of readability and organization.
  • Participants of Process
    Please list participants concerning the business process in this section. It is recommended to also write names of swimlanes (described later).
  • Process Owner
    Please describe the participant in change of the business process. This participant will be a participant that periodically monitor the status of the business process and improve the business process.
  • Sample Process Diagram
    Diagrams should be drawn by using DOT language and Graphviz. Please refer to "Q-BPM:Process Diagram Images" to see how to define diagrams.
  • Sample Process Data
    By means of table format, please describe data used in each activity (task). For each data, in which activities it is readable (r), editable (w), and invisible (-) needs to be defined.

In addition to the section described above, noting "risk," "merit," "demerit," "KGI," and "KPI" is really effective to make the business process understood by readers.

Naming Articles

There are a very large number of sample process articles, and it should be good for everyone to be able to easily find the business process that he/she wants to know. Therefore, please follow the naming rules below so that business process can be easily found via keyword search.

  • An article name is consisted of item name, which is classified into business type categories, and keywords.
{Item Name}+"/" (half-width slash) + {keywords}
Reimbursement Application Process/Sequential Submission, Uploading Receipt Image, Approval of Supervisor
  • Regarding item names, please refer to the list of items of "business type categories" in "Categories of Article" section below.
  • If there are more than one keywords to be specified, please use "," (half-width comma) as delimiter. It is OK to specify multiple keywords.

However, in case too many keywords are used, readability of sample process name might be negatively impacted. It is recommended that the keywords should be totally at most 20 letters.

Categories of Article

Categories of sample processes are roughly divided into two: "business type category" and "principal department category."

  • "Business type category" is a category that indicates in which business the sample process is executed.
    • General-purpose Business Process
    • Core Business Process
    • Business Process for Support Administration
  • "Principal Department Category" is a category indicating by which department the sample process is managed (maintained and monitored).
    • Accounting Department
    • Human Resource Department
    • General Affairs Department
    • Development Department
    • Sales Department
    • Marketing Department
    • Quality Management Department
    • Business Development Department
    • Planning Department
    • Financial Affairs Department
    • Legal Affairs Department
    • Public Relations Department
    • IR Department
    • Taxation Business Department
    • Auditing Department
    • Intellectual Property Department
    • Labor Department
    • Research Department
    • Information System Department
    • Arbitrary Department
      A process that is not managed by any specific department (in other words, managed by various departments) is categorized as "Arbitrary Department."

Please specify an appropriate category for each of "business type category" and "principal department category."

 [[Category:Multipurpose Business Process]]
 [[Category:Human Resource Department]]

When you creates a sample process article, if you can not find an appropriate "business type" and "department" in the list above, please feel free to add it to the list and use it.

Item Names in "Business Type Category"

This section shows item names used in "article names" described above and which category they belong to.

※IDX.X.X in parentheses indicates model ID defined in APQC.

  • General-purpose Business Process
    • Document Creation Process
    • Application Handling Process
    • Periodic Reporting Process
    • Decision Request Process
    • Strategy Planning Process
  • Core Business Process
    • EA Setup Process
    • Customer-Management Strategy Planning process (ID3.2.1)
    • CRM Operation Process
    • Marketing Strategy Planning Process
    • Estimate Acquisition Process
    • Acceptance Inspection Process
  • Business Process for Support Administration
    • Human-Resource Administration: Recruiting Process (ID6.2.x)
    • Human-Resource Administration: ID Card Issuance Process
    • Login ID/Password Setup Process
    • Human-Resource Administration: Skill Development Process (6.3.4)
    • Human-Resource Administration: Employee Evaluation Process (6.4.1)
    • Human-Resource Administration: Motivation Program Setup Process (6.4.1-6.4.2)
    • General Affairs: IT Introduction Process (ID7.1.8)
    • Accounting: Reimbursement Application Process (8.6.1)
    • Credit Administration Process
    • Knowledge Management Process (ID12.3.3)

Naming Swimlane

Rectangles that contain tasks drawn in "Sample Process Diagram" section in an article represent approximate groups. (These rectangles are called swimlanes.)

The name of the group is expressed by imitating E-mail address format.

  • [Example 1: In case of business process in marketing department]
Please write"

Note: "Marketing" (text before "@") indicates "marketing department."
      ""(text after "@") represents a company to which "the marketing department" belongs.
      Swimlane might be a different company. Therefore, "" must be consistently used for swimlanes that belong to the same company.
      (*)For swimlane of another company, different name must be assigned, such as ""
  • [Example 2: In case of business process used by people that belong to various groups and departments]
Write ""

Note: "Person" (text before "@") indicates a person in non-specific group or department.
      "" (text after "@") is a company to which "person" belongs.
  • [Example 3: In case of business process used by a person in a special position of a group, a marketing department in the example]
Write ""

Note: "Marketing-leader" (text before "@") indicates the leader of "the marketing department."
      Please delimit marketing and leader by using "-."
      "Marketing" represents a group/department that a person who executes the swimlane belongs to, and "leader" represents a position.
      If the created business process includes multiple swimlanes with different special positions in the same group/department, 
      please distinguish them by using "parent-leader," for example as in marketing-parent-leader. 
Departments' E-mail Addresses used in categories
Department Name E-mail Address
Human Resource
General Affairs
Quality Management
Business Development
Financial Affairs
Legal Affairs
Public Relations
IR Department
Taxation Business
Intellectual Property

Naming Activity

This section explains the naming rules of each task (activity) used in sample process diagram section in an article.

(A Part of ) Sample Process Diagram

Naming rules are as follows.

  • {ID, at most 3 letters of the alphabet} + {a number for the ID or the initial of a event} + {Noun clause that describes task}
I1:Confirmation of Application
Ie:Notification of Rejection
  • The first part should match the initial of corresponding swimlane name. If there are more than one swimlanes whose initial letters are the same, please increase the number of letters to make IDs unique.
(Explanation about the example)
Because the swimlane name is, ID of an activity used in the corresponding swimlane is "I."

Representations of Process Data

In business process, there are data held among activities (tasks). Such data are called process data. Some data can only be browsed, another can also be edited, and others can not even be browsed by some activities.

In order to understand how business process behaves or impacts users, Sample Process Data is indispensable.

Please use table format so that the relations between activities and process data are easily expressed.

Operations on process data in each activity are defined by using the notation shown below.

  • Mandatory / Optional
    "NN," which means NotNull, in case of mandatory, or "-" (hyphen), in case of optional, must be specified in the corresponding field to clarify whether it is mandatory or not.
  • Read / Write Attribute
    This is used to clarify whether the corresponding data can be read or not and also whether the data is editable or not.
    • "R" : Process data can only be read.
    • "RW": Process data is editable as well as readable.
    • "-": Process data is not readable or editable.
    • "W": Process data can only be created and updated. (Existing data can not be read.)

Sample Process Data

Input/output of each activity (Visibility)
Data Name Type Mandatory P1 S1 A1 M3 (P2) (P2)
Applicant Name User Type (UID)[Default: Login user] NN (RW) R R R R R
Group Name Group Type (GID)[Default: Default group of the login user] NN (RW) R R R R R
Decider User Type (UID)[Default: Group leader] NN (RW) R R R R RW
Date of Advance Date Type (date) NN RW R R R R RW
Amount of Advance Money Type (money) NN RW R R R R RW
Payment Recipient Text (char) NN RW R R R R RW
Remark Text (char) - RW R R R R RW
Image of Receipt Image (file) - RW R R R R RW
Decision Flag Single Choice (OK/NG) NN R RW R R R R
Comment upon Decision Text (char) NN R RW R R R R
Accountant Verification Flag Single Choice (OK/miss/NG) NN R R RW R R R
Comment upon Accountant's Verification Text (char) NN R R RW R R R
Comment upon Minor Revision by Accountant Text (char) NN - - - R - W
Rejection Accept Flag Single Choice(Re-apply/Accept) NN R R R R RW R
Comment of Confirmation by Applicant Sting (char) -- - - - W - -

Here is an example of process diagram that deals with process data shown above.

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General nouns | Proper nouns | General-purpose business process | Core business process | Business process for support administration
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